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• # Mathematics in online casino slots and games

The history of gambling is more than a century old. Even in the Middle Ages people understood that winning depends not only on chance, it is possible to calculate its probability with the help of mathematics. The first serious work in this direction led Gerolamo Cardano, who in the first half of the sixteenth century, wrote a whole book about dice and the mathematical relationships involved in it. The work explained how to manage your stakes to increase your winnings and minimize your losses. Galileo, Pascal, Huygens, Bernoulli, Poisson, Laplace, Moivre, and other world-renowned mathematicians later elaborated on the subject. In various ways they came to the conclusion: given the number of possible outcomes and the ways in which they occur, by doing mathematical calculations, it is possible to get the probability of a winning combination in any game. So appeared the theory of probability in games, relevant not only for cards and dice, but also for slots modern online casinos. Thanks to it today the developers of new mathematical models for games can make the casino owners always win.

## Mathematical expectation

In the specialist literature, the term is interpreted as a certain amount of money that a player can gain or lose as a result of a game by placing identical bets in a certain period of time. There is a formula that can be used to calculate the expectation: the number of winnings divided by the number of possible outcomes and multiplied by the amount of winnings. To this value is added the number of losses divided by the number of possible outcomes and multiplied by the bet amount. In most of the gambling games offered to users of modern online casinos, the expectation has a negative value. This means that the longer a user plays, the more likely they are to lose.

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## Mathematical variance in online casino games

In the mathematical literature, variance is defined as the amount of deviation of an indicator from its mean. In the context of gambling, it is a measure of the deviation of the result from the mathematical expectation. It is the mathematics of winning/losing, which is impossible to calculate in advance. This is the same randomness, on the will of which the majority of ordinary people rely. Dispersion allows almost everyone to win in a short period of time, but excludes the possibility of building a winning strategy in the case of prolonged play. Casino owners who do not wish to incur even short-term losses should keep this figure to a minimum.

## Ratio of probabilities of losing to winning

The field of classical roulette in the European version has thirty-seven cells, half of which are red, the other half black. One cell is green, which is the well-known zero. The mathematical probability of any numerical value on the field is within three percent (2.7% to be exact), and one of the two colours – about forty-nine percent (48.6%). A simple calculation shows that the probability of guessing one of the two colours is almost twenty times higher than any number. This is the basis of the betting system: the lower the probability of winning, the higher the amount. If you want to have roulette in your casino, go with the two zero option; it will give you a three times bigger advantage over your players than the classic European version and more than five times bigger than the zero-less variant.

## Important

Mathematical calculations can only help the player if there is a large amount of statistical data (falls, bets, repetitions), which is almost impossible in a standard game. This is why the full power of mathematics is on the side of the casino owner, who receives from the developers a highly accurate tool for making money that does not fail.

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